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Political system in Turkey

Republic of Turkey is an unitary state with a mixed form of government (it combines elements of both parliamentary and presidential republic).

Legislative and political base

Constitution. The Republic of Turkey adopted its first Constitution in 1924. It has kept the basic principles of the Constitution of 1921, in particular the principle of national sovereignty. Just as in the constitution of 1921, the Grand National Assembly of Turkey was proclaimed “sole representative of the popular will.”  The second constitution of the Republic of Turkey was adopted in 1961. It established the introduction of a bicameral parliament, consisting of 450 deputies of the National Assembly and Senate of Republic of 150 members, elected by universal election, and 15 members appointed by the President. These two chambers make up the Grand National Assembly of Turkey. The third constitution, which operates to this day, was adopted by referendum in 1982. According to the 1982 Constitution, sovereignty fully and unconditionally belongs to the people.
The Constitution emphasizes that the Turkish state is an indivisible territorial and national unity, secular, democratic, social state with legal regulation. All citizens are equal before the law and any discrimination based on language, race, skin color, sex, political, philosophical, religious or other similar beliefs completely ruled out. Parliament adopted a set of amendments to make the 1982 Constitution more democratic and to expand democratic rights and freedoms in the country.

Legislative power belongs to the Turkish Grand National Assembly (TGNA), which consists of 550 deputies. Parliamentary elections are held every 4 years. TGNA functions include the adoption of draft laws, amendments and cancellation of existing laws; supervise the work of the Council of Ministers (Cabinet) and the Ministers; to provide the Council of Ministers authority to make legally valid government acts in certain cases; discussion and adoption of the draft budget and draft laws on the financial statements, deciding on the emission of currency, the declaration of war, martial law or a state of emergency; ratification of international agreements; decision (3/5 votes of deputies TGNA) on amnesty and pardon, in accordance with the Constitution.

Judicial power in Turkey is exercised by independent courts and judicial organizations on behalf of the Turkish people. Part of the Constitution, dedicated to the judiciary, based on the principle of the rule of law. The judicial system is based on the principles of independence of the judiciary and on ensure the safety of judges during their tenure. Judges carry out their functions independently on the basis of personal opinion and in accordance with the provisions of the Constitution, the law and the relevant legal standards.
Legislative and executive authorities are obliged to carry out the decisions of the court and can not change or delay the execution of such decisions. Section of the Constitution devoted to the judicial authority, identifies the following higher courts: the Constitutional Court, the Supreme Court of Appeals, the Council of State, the Supreme Military Court of Appeals, the Supreme Military Administrative Court and the Court of legal conflicts.

The executive power in Turkey consists of the President of the Republic and the Council of Ministers (Cabinet).
President of the Republic has the authority in the legislative, executive and judicial branches of government; provides implementation of the Constitution, and he is responsible for the correct and harmonious functioning of state agencies.
The fundamental duty of the Council of Ministers is to formulate and implement internal and external policy of the state. The Council of Ministers is accountable to the Parliament during the period of performance of his duties.

Head of state – President Recep Tayyip Erdogan (former Prime Minister), won the country’s first direct presidential election on August 10, 2014, assumed the position on August 28, 2014. (Before that, the President of Turkey was  Abdullah Gul from 28 August 2007 to August 28, 2014.).

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